A Rebuttal to Paul Schrader: Learn to Respect Your Audience

Fresh off his latest acclaimed film, First Reformed, veteran director Paul Schrader was interviewed on the online magazine Deadline Hollywood about his take on the current state of cinema. I myself have always found the discussion of what decade could be said to be the high point of a given medium fascinating. Are the consensuses guided by nostalgia or did the masters of old really have something the current generation doesn’t possess? If one were to look at any given list of the greatest films ever made, one would get the impression the 1970s in particular was an exemplary decade for the medium.

However, Mr. Schrader felt differently. He made the case that, if anything, there is a far greater number of talented filmmakers working today. What he felt the one unequivocal advantage the 1970s had over the 2010s was the audience. In the interview, he claimed that because filmgoers don’t take the medium seriously, and it is “very, very hard” to make a “serious movie” under such circumstances. He punctuated this point by saying that it was audiences who were letting filmmakers down – not the other way around.

As someone who considers Raging Bull one of the best films ever made, this one statement made me lose a lot of respect for the man. There are so many problems with it that I barely know where to begin. First of all, his suggestion that audiences don’t take films seriously is complete nonsense. As of this writing, people on the internet are debating over Jordan Peele’s Us and the rich layers of symbolism therein. If that wasn’t enough, Avengers: Endgame has just broken several box-office records purely through presales. If he needed proof of audiences taking films seriously, he should’ve paid attention to when the internet erupted following the 90th Academy Award ceremony due to Lady Bird failing to win a single Oscar. None of these things would have happened if, as Mr. Schrader says, audiences didn’t care about films.

Because of this, I can only assume that when he says “[audiences] don’t take [movies] seriously”, he actually means “[audiences] don’t take [movies] seriously on my terms”. By his implicit definition, a film isn’t good unless it’s timely and touches upon current problems and social issues such as his own First Reformed. Was Star Wars secretly a piece of insipid, childish garbage because George Lucas didn’t make a film about the mid-1970s recession or the infamous New York City blackout of 1977? Of course not.

Besides, it would be very self-defeating for audiences to demand and praise only one kind of film. If the audience were to do exactly what Mr. Schrader says, the medium would stagnate. Critics would have a clear, objective standard of what constituted a good film, causing audiences to mindlessly oblige. This isn’t how any medium should operate; if the audience elects not to agree with critics, creators cannot then lambast them for not understanding their vision – at least not without being rightly challenged. Audiences may be proven wrong at a later time, but there have been just as many instances in which critics failed to recognize a masterpiece when it was right in front of them – just look what happened to Charles Laughton when he made The Night of the Hunter. As such, it is almost never a black-and-white phenomenon.

It’s easy for cinephiles to write off the overwhelming success of summer blockbusters and the Marvel Cinematic Universe as proof that the audience want and expect dumb entertainment, but this theory doesn’t hold up under scrutiny. There was a time starting in the mid-nineties when summer blockbusters were sold purely on their special effects, thus resulting in a golden age of forgettable disaster films. Sure, there was the occasional Face/Off to liven things up, but most blockbusters from around this time ended up like Volcano, Armageddon, Twister, or The Lost World: Jurassic Park. In fact, I would argue the triumph of the Marvel Cinematic Universe prompted people to begin expecting more out of summer blockbusters. These films were especially commendable in the 2010s, being some of the only ones being sold as actual stories and not heavy-handed parables bolstered by confirmation bias.

The disquieting thing is that Mr. Schrader’s conclusion is one that is shared by many film scholars. They lament that a new and improved studio system rose from the ashes of New Hollywood in the early 1980s, making films to appeal to the lower common denominator rather than on any artistic merit. This is evident when you examine any high-minded critic’s lists of the greatest films of each decade. Up until the 1970s, you will see many films that were hits with the general populace. Starting in the 1980s, however, you may notice said lists populated by features the average person has never heard of. This would appear to support the stereotypical elitist narrative of how the businesspeople ruined the auteur theory for everyone and made audiences dumber by subjecting them to decades’ worth of uninspired, insipid garbage.

What this conveniently ignores is that the New Hollywood movement was primarily destroyed by its own artists. Scholars like to pin the blame on George Lucas’s Star Wars and how it taught investors that a film’s worth is measured by its ability to spin off merchandise rather than its own merits, but there is a bit more to it than that. New Hollywood was defined by artists such as Hal Ashby, Michael Cimino, William Friedkin, and Francis Ford Coppola. Their works, including Coming Home, The Deer Hunter, The Boys in the Band, and The Godfather are considered exemplary films to this very day.

One of the most significant triumphs occurred late in the decade when Francis Ford Coppola put the finishing touches on his sprawling anti-war epic Apocalypse Now. The hellish production cycle of this film is legendary – to the point where it was a genuine miracle they managed to finish it. It’s equally miraculous that, given its gigantic budget, it performed well in the box office. It would be far more likely for Apocalypse Now to have completely bombed, for a large budget necessitates an impressive turnout just to break even. I don’t even need to imagine such a scenario; all four of the directors I mentioned ended up doing just that.

Not pictured: Responsibility

Given that ticket sales had decreased dramatically in the 1960s as a result of various factors, it was only a matter of time before these practices became the industry’s undoing. Critics can extol the values of the auteur theory all they want, but New Hollywood’s demise came about primarily because of the directors’ total disregard for the resources they were allotted. Without a reasonable executive to put their foot down, directors let their egos get the better of them. You would get these films with inflated budgets only to receive a tiny fraction back in the box office. Many people lost their jobs, entire studios went bankrupt, and investors were rewarded for putting their faith in these skilled directors with nothing. Thus began the medium’s Blockbuster Age. This era may be the bane of the average cinephile’s existence, but the fact of the matter is that it would have been financially irresponsible for producers to let the New Hollywood-era practices continue into the foreseeable future.  These directors were lucky they didn’t dismantle the entire American film industry.

The reason this is important to keep in mind is because, regardless of who you could consider to be at fault, audiences realistically never had any say in the matter. If the market consists of nothing but mindless schlock, it’s not as though they can march to the producer’s office and demand smarter fare. Assuming Mr. Schrader is correct in that the audiences of the 1970s were indeed better than contemporary ones, there is a contradiction in his assessment. By his own logic, they would never have let the Blockbuster Age happen, yet that is exactly what they did. Then again, everyone has their own idea of what constitutes a good film, so even an organized, unified effort to demand the studios to step up their game would involve the nearly insurmountable task of consolidating countless conflicting opinions and making a singular, coherent argument out of them. Most people wouldn’t bother because, at the end of the day, seeing films ranks relatively low on the average list of priorities. After all, seeing a film serves a hedonic purpose; even if it has a positive social message, watching it is not required to survive like food, water, and shelter.

Mr. Schrader’s conclusion also ignores that the current state of the film industry is far different than it was in the 1970s. Most notably, there are significantly more entertainment options now than there were back then. The 1980s in particular saw two mediums gain traction: video games and comic books. This ensured films had more competition than just television and music. Although video games were dismissed as children’s toys at first, going into the twenty-first century, artists began experimenting with interactive narratives. In doing so, they formed stories that couldn’t exist in any other medium. In the 2010s, a majority of the decade’s avant-garde storytelling techniques saw their inception in video games such as Undertale and OneShot. Similarly, the 1980s was the decade in which comics went from being things children would use to rot their brains in lieu of reading their history books to competing with traditional literature on equal footing. This was primarily thanks to the success of Alan Moore’s Watchmen and Frank Miller’s Batman: The Dark Knight Returns. As such, Mr. Schrader’s statement ignores that there are plenty of erudite works with sizable fanbases; they’re just not necessarily meant to be watched in a theater.

Ultimately, what I find especially contemptible about Mr. Schrader’s insinuation is that it is a very cowardly stance. When it comes to the act of making a film and releasing it to the public, there are five major factions that allow this operation to function. First, there are the creators themselves. Obviously, with no directors or actors, a given film wouldn’t exist. Despite certain directors inserting potshots against producers in their work, they are required to finance the film, ensuring the project is finished. It simply wouldn’t do if all of their hard work went unnoticed, so it’s up to distributors to ensure what they made reaches as many theaters as possible. Once the film has made its debut, critics get to write about what does and doesn’t work. Finally, it’s up to the audience to see the film for themselves, giving it a place in the public consciousness.

In order for the medium’s situation to be as Mr. Schrader thinks it is, at least one of these factions has to be at fault. However, there is quite a bit of baggage that comes with a big name choosing to fault four of these factions. Were he to label the creators the guilty party, he would run the risk of alienating himself from his peers, drastically limiting who he could work with. Meanwhile, even if artistic types often have a contentious relationship with producers, the smart ones know better than to bite the hand that feeds them. There are exceptions such as the writers who work on The Simpsons, but the network is willing to put up with any of these minor slights if it means a securing a steady source of income.

Plus, it is Fox we’re talking about.

Assuming this problem can be blamed on a single faction to begin with, the distributors are probably the most at fault. If the audience should improve their taste, how can they possibly go about doing so when the distributors won’t allow the intelligent films to be screened where they live? It’s fitting that Mr. Schrader expressed this opinion in 2018 because whether he and his ilk are willing to acknowledge it or not, it was a horrible year for film distribution. This was the year in which distributors felt films such as Death of a Nation, Peppermint, and Fifty Shades Freed needed to have a wide release whereas Leave No Trace and Mandy only deserved to be in select theaters. Nonetheless, Mr. Schrader can’t fault them because it would discourage them from distributing his own work.

It seems to be a common trend among creative types to view critics as the true believers. It doesn’t matter that Joe six-pack thinks of this naval-gazing introspection of the human condition as pretentiously boring and self-righteous; the critics’ say it’s good, it therefore must be so. Even if that isn’t true, insulting critics is something even good writers refrain from doing because it is typically considered bad form. After all, fewer things in the artistic world are worse than a director who can’t take criticism. Moreover, they’re the ones whose consensuses decide whether or not a film is worth seeing. Many times, critics have proven that they can dish it out, but they can’t take it. Making them angry in any way might cause them to find fault in a film they would have otherwise praised.

To be completely fair, that would be a valid concern.

That just leaves us with one remaining faction: the audience. How a film performs in the box office determines whether the investor’s trust in the creators paid off or they effectively set millions of dollars ablaze. It would seem downright suicidal to insinuate they’re the ones at fault when they are capable of improving the medium for everyone. Even so, Mr. Schrader opts to pick on them for one simple reason: they’re outsiders. They’re instrumental for a film’s success, yet they are also the unwashed masses. He can badmouth them because he will not suffer a direct consequence for doing so. He can even take comfort in the fact that his opinion will not reach every single one of his viewers, meaning the people who would have a problem with it aren’t afforded an opportunity to object.

The unfortunate thing is that this mentality is often shared by critics, ensuring it invariably goes unchallenged. “Fish tend not to notice the water they’re swimming in” as the old adage goes. Hereditary got a D+ on CinemaScore? It’s far too high-minded for you worthless drones. Nintendo opted to commission a new Metroid Prime installment? They must have given into the fanboys baselessly whining about Metroid: Other M. Emotionally hurt that the Ex Machina marketing team catfished you on Tinder? Suck it up, you big baby; anything goes when it comes to promoting true art. This combative relationship with their audience is not the sign of a healthy industry. Historically, a majority of the companies that thrust blame onto their clientele like Mr. Schrader and any of these journalists do are the ones seconds away from filing Chapter 7 bankruptcy. The owners know they’re doomed, so they will do anything to get the blame off themselves and onto anyone else to save whatever remaining face they have left.

What I feel to be the most damning aspect of Mr. Schrader’s opinion is that it is, from an artistic standpoint, a betrayal of his own movement’s ethos. What made New Hollywood such an inspiring movement despite its many, many flaws was how it encouraged its directors to get creative. Part of what inspired it in the first place was when the film industry had no choice but to acknowledge their competition. People stayed home to watch television, independent efforts attracted young talent, and many foreign filmmakers such as Akira Kurosawa and François Truffaut proved they were more than a match for Hollywood’s best. In the face of this fierce competition, directors sought to step up their game. They rose to the challenge, and produced many classic films. Even if it didn’t work out in the long term, their influence on the medium is undeniable.

With such contempt for his audience, I don’t feel it to be a coincidence that I saw not a faint glimmer of the creative spark he used to pen the script for Raging Bull alongside Mardik Martin when I listened to this interview or even as I watched First Reformed. Rather than take the new environment as a challenge to improve himself and step up his game, Mr. Schrader opted to lash out at his audience instead. Interestingly, fellow New Hollywood alumni Steven Spielberg would later call on the Oscars to forbid Netflix from entering the competition ever again after Alfonso Cuarón’s Roma received a nomination. Given that he attracted the attention of the United States Department of Justice, it’s difficult to dismiss the idea that he sought to deplatform his competition rather than protect the sanctity of the Academy. It’s the same line of thinking that fuels Mr. Schrader’s beliefs; there’s no need to improve if he can cut potential detractors off at the knees first. So, while Mr. Schrader believes filmgoers are letting him down, I feel his conclusion demonstrates he has already thrown in the towel.

I think the best way to close this editorial is with a personal story. I have been critiquing games for nearly five years. At first, I would be lucky if my reviews reached 2,000 words. Nowadays, a 2,000-word review is what happens when the game in question barely gives me anything to talk about. Within my fifth year, I managed to do something I would never have imagined I could do when I was just starting out: I wrote not one, but four reviews that exceeded 10,000 words. Though it is said that practice makes perfect, I know I wouldn’t have improved if I wasn’t regularly interacting with my audience. Through various exchanges in the comment sections, I was able to form new opinions I wouldn’t have otherwise. Had I adopted the same hostile attitude driving the average modern critic and Mr. Schrader, I would be exactly where I was when I started.

A wise man once said that “those who want respect, give respect”.

Hey, good advice is where you find it.

If Mr. Schrader or any critic dancing to his tune continues to show nothing but contempt for their audiences, they cannot expect any in return – nor should they. Should audiences seek to improve themselves? Of course – everyone should. Self-improvement is a lifelong journey and whatever they do in their attempts to better themselves, they would do well not to mentally grow old like Mr. Schrader clearly has.

12 thoughts on “A Rebuttal to Paul Schrader: Learn to Respect Your Audience

  1. When I was younger, I was guilty of being way too “high-minded” about art in this way sometimes, especially about music. When I got older, I realized that people will like what they like, and that record companies and film distributors will put out what they think people want to see, and that nobody’s at fault or wrong for any of it. I still think certain popular movies, albums, and games are garbage, but what do I care if people enjoy it? Schrader’s “the audience is dumb now” argument just comes off as sour grapes: my movie didn’t perform in the box office, so that means the audience is too stupid to truly appreciate it! Can’t be that my movie is a ponderous self-indulgent piece of crap. (I didn’t see First Reformed, so that’s not a judgment on my part – just saying in general.)

    Liked by 1 person

      • To be honest, I was probably guilty of that too at a younger age; luckily, I had the courtesy not to subject the internet to that. It’s interesting you say that because when I read the Hereditary article I linked to, I originally assumed it was written by someone in their late twenties/early thirties who had a lot of education and was just starting to develop his own taste in films (so basically, Bob Chipman if he only watched films). Then I looked at Owen Gleiberman’s Wikipedia page and learned he was 59 when he wrote that. That is way too old of an age to be thinking like that; most people grow out of it before they’re 25.

        While I wouldn’t quite go that far, “ponderous self-indulgent piece of crap” is a fair assessment of First Reformed. I have a review of it ready to go, but I’ll just say now that it was interested in preaching a message first and telling a story an extremely distant second, and it was worse off for it. I do think there was a bit of sour grapes attached to his argument; we’re talking about a film that made $3.8 million on a $3.5 million budget. It was acclaimed, and I can tell that its acclaim was primarily a result of confirmation bias (if not, completely so). Leading man Ethan Hawke was decent, but the other characters were caricatures of caricatures. I find it a little too convenient that the exact second he began dancing to the critics’ tune, suddenly, said critics completely forgot about his 21st century rough patch and acted as though it never happened. Going from a 9% film in 2014 (Dying of the Light) to a 93% one in 2017 isn’t impossible, but it is highly unlikely given that the former has more of a precedent.

        And no, I get you; nothing excuses blatant propaganda like Death of a Nation. I know I seem really tough on a lot of left-leaning works (i.e. BlacKkKlansman, First Reformed, Vice, etc.), but that’s because they’re the ones getting critical acclaim. If I were to review stuff like Unplanned or Death of a Nation, I’d struggle to give them 1/10s. If it helps, Death of a Nation apparently made $5.9 million on a $6 million budget.

        Liked by 1 person

  2. One of the big differences between the 70’s and today is the rise of the multiplex cinema. Whilst the concept has been in existence since 1915, traditionally cinemas only housed two or three screens. Since the 90’s, multiplex cinemas have grown to have up to a dozen or many more screens with a different film in each one, meaning filmgoers had a wider choice of what they wanted to see rather than be limited to what the cinema could or wanted to show.

    I can always recall my original local cinema that shut down in 1982, that only had two screens and every other Thursday was when the marquee would update with the new release which was quite exciting. But, with just two screens, we were limited for choice so kids film and artier films were shown during the day with blockbusters and “adult rated” films during the night. We finally got our cinema back three years ago and whilst still small it has seven screens with a decent range of films (but not enough for my varied tastes however… <_<).

    So, if anything I would agree that it is not necessarily that audiences today are worse, rather they have far more choice and can now see what they want to see instead of what is put in front of them. The days of going to the cinema for the sake of a night out and watching whatever is on are over, but going to the cinema to enjoy what you want to is alive and well, it's just the profits/successes are shared across a wider base now, and that is what is really eating up some people. 😉

    Liked by 1 person

    • I’m not old enough to have seen what theaters were like before the rise of multiplexes, so it’s great hearing a firsthand account of what things were like back then. That’s the other thing, isn’t it? Getting something on video used to be a luxury, but now anyone can afford it, which gives them even less of a reason to want to go to the theaters.

      I can’t help but read Mr. Schrader’s screed as him being bitter because First Reformed didn’t perform well ($3.8 million on a $3.5 million budget). I am always on the lookout for good films, yet the acclaimed First Reformed completely slipped beneath my radar because its marketing and distribution were nonexistent (I later learned it wouldn’t have been worth the effort, but that’s beside the point). I can imagine my story isn’t unique; there were likely plenty of people who would have seen the film if they could, yet their local theaters failed to screen it. A24 really needs to learn to expand their audience outside of critics and cinephiles. They seemed to learn that with The Disaster Artist, but then they fell off the wagon starting with Hereditary.

      What can’t be denied, as you say, is that Mr. Schrader completely failed to read the current state of the industry correctly. Partially thanks to the internet and partially thanks to there being more entertainment options, there just isn’t a singular pop culture anymore. Sure, some films prove immensely successful, but with the options available to them, every single audience member is going to have radically different experiences from each other. That was technically true back in the 1970s, but it’s even more obvious now.

      Liked by 1 person

  3. I hardly ever go to the movies as it seems to me, all they’ve been doing as of late are superhero movies (which is fine but not everyone is into it) and remakes of old movies. I’m impressed anymore when I see a trailer and it’s not one of those two things and actually gets my attention. Those I am more likely to go see in theater.
    I think you’re entirely correct though, he can’t blame anyone else without risking his own career.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I go to the movies quite frequently, though I tend not to pay attention to trailers (especially when A24 is involved) because there are generally more good trailers than there are good films. Plus, there have been plenty of instances in which I thought the trailer made something look stupid only for it to turn out to be a pleasant surprise when the critics ended up praising it.

      Definitely. As I said, it was a very cowardly statement because he wanted to blame someone (even though, realistically, no one person is at fault for this supposed problem), and he just happened to (not serendipitously) choose the one faction that wouldn’t put his career in jeopardy if he criticized them – or at least not directly.

      Liked by 1 person

  4. I remember you mentioning Schrader’s argument a while back. And I still think it’s just as ridiculous. There are a million reasons why an audience might not gravitate toward a specific work. The work might still be quality, and not catch on. But if you’re thinking that the reason it doesn’t catch on with the audience is that the audience isn’t good enough, well, the problem’s not with them, it’s with you. If you’re making something that’s targeted toward the audience, your work is good, and you have all the other features in place to reach them, and they don’t get it, at best you fell prey to bad luck. At worst, you misaimed. To think that it’s because they’re not good enough takes a certain kind of deliberate blindness.

    The more thoughtful works are always going to have less mass market appeal than the simpler stuff. They don’t translate as well, ideas don’t connect with as broad a swath of people as does action and visuals, and stronger ideas are going to delve further and further into the niche. That happens, and that has always been the case. To ignore that, to assume everyone should like the thing you’re so proud of and the reason they don’t is because they suck, just smacks of pure, absolute sulkiness. A child that can’t handle or grow from the failure.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I’m glad that my commenters agreed with what I’m saying because it really is disquieting how many journalists take his side in this matter. I used to lament that video games were never taken seriously as an art form, but now, as AK has suggested in the past, I’m starting to see it as one of the medium’s greatest strengths. Whenever game designers say stupid stuff like this, they get called out on it immediately because even the most revered game designers lack that aura of mysticism the best film directors receive from professional critics and journalists (just ask Jonathan Blow or Phil Fish). They don’t realize or want to admit that, as skilled as those directors are, they are human just like everyone else for good and for ill. That, unfortunately, is a factor in certain directors getting away with a lot of unconscionable acts – anything to promote high art, right? To them, the ideal audience reaction is to stare in awe at the wondrous creator and their masterwork, not questioning any potential shortcoming or forming their own interpretations. How is anyone supposed to improve themselves in such an environment? Never mind the fact that a majority of the works with any kind of staying power tend to be rife with applicability.

      I really try not to read too much into things when I’m writing these editorials, but it’s impossible to dismiss the idea that Schrader was angry at the fact that his acclaimed film only barely broke even – sour grapes, in other words. I am always on the lookout for acclaimed films to see, and yet First Reformed completely slipped beneath my radar thanks to A24’s negligence, and there is no way I’m a unique case. In short, his assertion that audiences are letting filmmakers down sounds intelligent from a distance, but when you actually examine it with any kind of scrutiny, it’s just petulant whining.

      Liked by 1 person

  5. Pingback: April 2019 in Summary: Endings and Beginnings | Extra Life

  6. Looks like the movie industry have joined their comic/video game counterparts in bashing those who consume their creations. I don’t think audiences have changed much over the years. Hollywood however likes to dumb things down and play things safe with recycled material. Doesn’t seem like an audience issue. Studios in the seventies were better, as they had the courage to greenlight more varied films.

    Liked by 1 person

    • I don’t really know much about the comics industry, but I would actually say that, as hostile as the game journalists are towards their consumers, they do realize the importance of selling them on ideas (even if they will never *ever* admit it out loud). After all, if a game they like doesn’t perform well, they can kiss the studio goodbye; that consequence isn’t as severe (and arguably doesn’t exist) with the kinds of films today’s critics enjoy. Because the audience keeps them on a tight leash, games journalists have difficulties going off the deep end the same way film journalists do (or in this case, a film director does).

      And you’re right; the film industry as a whole is far more conservative than it was in the 1970s. For that matter, filmmakers who had to deal with the Hays Code had more of a creative spark to them than those of the 2010s – including today’s Paul Schrader. Even today’s indie filmmakers tend to play it safe, making them come across as several steps behind what creators in other mediums (gaming especially) have done in the past decade. Schrader’s is a classic “never our fault” argument, and the worst part is that he has the journalists on his side, ensuring the group participation needed to pull it off successfully. That is a man in serious need of a reality check, and as some who admires his early work, his words really made me lose a lot of respect for him. There are many things that led to the current, creatively bankrupt state the film industry is in now, but I can safely say the audience was the least responsible for it happening (if they even had a say to begin with).

      Liked by 1 person

Leave a Reply

Please log in using one of these methods to post your comment:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.