[FILM REVIEW] Aparajito (Satyajit Ray, 1956)

In the year 1920, a young boy named Apurba Roy – or Apu – has left his home in rural Bengal with his parents, Harihar and Sarbajaya, settling into an apartment in the bustling city of Varanasi. Working as a priest, Harihar has been making a decent amount of money, and with the tragic death his first child weighing on his mind, he is determined to make as good of a life as possible for Apu. The family couldn’t possibly have known at the time exactly what plans fate had in store for them.


Originally, Satyajit Ray had no intentions of ever creating a sequel to Pather Panchali. However, because of its critical and commercial success, he found himself compelled to continue the story, thus Aparajito – or The Unvanquished. Pather Panchali, by Mr. Ray’s own admission, featured a rambling narrative. Children, regardless of their background, typically have limited freedom, so it makes sense from a narrative standpoint that Pather Panchali would be driven by random events occurring to the protagonist and his family.

Taking place shortly after the events of Pather Panchali, Aparajito begins similarly. Mr. Ray presents his audience a day in the new life Apu and his family lead. Their lifestyle is still modest and low-key, but it’s a definite step up from their former squalid living conditions. At this point, the family is content – the only thing resembling a conflict is when monkeys get into their apartment, forcing an annoyed Sarbajaya to drive them out. Apu naturally adores the monkeys and feeds them whenever he can.

However, these good times are not to last. Shortly after finding stability, Harihar catches a fever. The doctors do what they can to save his life, but it is no use. As Harihar was the family’s breadwinner, this development places Apu and Sarbajaya between a rock and a hard place. Apu’s mother begins working as a maid, but his great-uncle arrives and encourages them to return to Bengal. They then settle in the village of Mansapota.

If Pather Panchali chronicled Apu’s early years, Aparajito shows what happens when a child finally begins to grow up. The previous film ended with Apu beginning to show agency when he threw a necklace that his sister stole into a pond, thus preserving her memory. Once he and his mother move to Mansapota, however, he seeks to deviate what his family expects out of him. He apprentices as a priest at first, but what he really wants is to attend the local school. This scene is especially powerful for anyone who grew up in a country with a strong educational system. While such countries often produced media in which kids are shown to hate school, Apu pines for what they take for granted. Notably, he has to persuade his mother to allow him to attend. Shortly thereafter, he impresses the headmaster with his aptitude. A few years later, he has succeeded enough to gain a scholarship. His new school happens to be in Kolkata – one of the largest cities in India.

What truly allows this film to succeed is that Apu’s interactions with his mother are amazingly nuanced. Sarbajaya is reluctant to see her son pursue these lofty goals, but it’s not for a selfish reason. Having lived her entire life in poverty, she doesn’t think Apu’s interest in science and art will amount to anything. She has only ever concerned herself with the short term out of pragmatism. There’s no sense in learning about these abstract concepts if you don’t have enough food to last the month, after all.

Apu convincing her of the education’s merits is compelling in that it’s a real conflict, yet Mr. Ray doesn’t feel the need to make it melodramatic. He calmly and politely explains to her just how much the world is changing and that, in the long term, he could make a better life for the both of them. What helps is that, while they don’t agree on everything, their affection for each other is very real. At one point, Apu deliberately misses a train so he can spend an extra day with his mother.

Alas, even with his newfound ability to think and act for himself, Apu still doesn’t have control over fate. In the final act, Apu becomes accustomed to city life and visits his mother less and less. Eventually, she falls ill, though she doesn’t disclose her affliction to Apu, worrying his studies will falter if she does. It’s not until his great-uncle writes to him that he learns of his mother’s illness. If the audience was expecting Apu to arrive back to see Sarbajaya one last time, the look on his great-uncle’s face tells them everything they need to know. Just like in real life, death can be sudden, disallowing that one final heartfelt moment between the dying and their loved ones commonplace in fiction. With the final apron string linking himself to his childhood forcibly severed, Apu rejects the idea of becoming a priest and returns to Kolkata.


It is a true testament to the quality of Aparajito that, going into the twenty-first century, it remained the only film sequel to ever win the grand prize at Venice, Berlin, or Cannes – some of the medium’s most prestigious festivals.  This is especially notable because sequels were, and still are, largely shunned by film critics. It therefore stands to reason that Aparajito managed to be something truly special. Mr. Ray must have invented some kind of new film language that overrode common critical sensibilities – if only for a moment. However, I feel the reason it succeeded is actually very simple. Whereas complacent directors – or producers chasing the dollar – seek to give their audience more of the same, Mr. Ray went in a new direction with his canon. What was once a rambling narrative now has a cohesive plot partially driven by its protagonist’s actions. It was the perfect way to show that, while Apu had grown up, there were plenty of aspects of his life he still couldn’t control. In other words, Aparajito is exactly what any artist should strive for when creating a sequel.

For that matter, Mr. Ray’s work also has the honor of being the first to win the Golden Lion, Cinema Nuovo Award, and the International Federation of Film Critics (FIPRESCI) Award. The takeaway is that if this film appeared at a given awards show or festival, Mr. Ray likely walked away with the grand prize. All of those triumphs were well deserved, for Aparajito stands to this day as an exemplary film of its genre. It absolutely deserves to be seen by anyone even vaguely interested in the medium. His work manages to transcend the typical slice-of-life formula, offering those who usually find them boring with a compelling narrative they will want to see through to the end.

Final Score: 8/10

[FILM REVIEW] Eighth Grade (Bo Burnham, 2018)

Kayla is an eighth grade student attending Miles Grove Middle School. She often posts motivational videos on YouTube to help those with little self-esteem, though they receive little attention. Her advice is quite ironic, for she herself is quite the shy person, having few friends at school. It is to the point where she is voted “Most Quiet” by her classmates. She also has difficulties connecting with her father, who tries, and largely fails, to ween her off of social media. In spite of her emotional baggage, Kayla spends her last week as a middle school student determined to leave her comfort zone.

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[FILM REVIEW] The Farewell (Lulu Wang, 2019)

Billi is a Chinese-American woman attempting to gain a Guggenheim Fellowship while living in New York City. She, along with her mother and father, had moved to the United States when she was very young, leaving behind their remaining relatives – including her beloved grandmother, Nai Nai. One day, they receive distressing news; Nai Nai has been diagnosed with terminal lung cancer. However, she herself does not know of her affliction with her sister deciding not to inform her. Using their nephew’s haphazardly planned wedding as an excuse to see Nai Nai one last time, Billi and her family travel to Changchun to surreptitiously bid her farewell.

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[FILM REVIEW] Spider-Man: Far From Home (Jon Watts, 2019)

Many months have passed since the Battle of Earth. One of the conflict’s participants, Peter Parker, better known as Spider-Man, has attempted to move on with his life to the best of his ability. During this time, he begins harboring feelings for a classmate named Michelle Jones, though she prefers to go by MJ. His school has organized a two-week summer trip to Europe, which Peter sees as the perfect opportunity to confess his feelings. Unfortunately for him, he may find a relaxing getaway is not in his future when he receives a phone call from Nick Fury.

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[FILM REVIEW] Spider-Man: Homecoming (Jon Watts, 2017)

WARNING: The very premise of this film contains spoilers for the series thus far.

One year ago, a high school student named Peter Parker was approached by philanthropist Tony Stark with an interesting proposition. The Avengers were in the middle of a heated internal dispute in Berlin, Germany. Around this time, a new superhero calling himself Spider-Man had appeared in Queens, New York, becoming an internet sensation in the process. Through his resources, Stark deduced that Parker and Spider-Man are one in the same, and recruited the student to help resolve the conflict. In the end, the Avengers were torn asunder and Parker returned to his studies at the Midtown School of Science and Technology after Stark told him he was not ready to become a full-time Avenger. Returning to school, he faces a challenge that may give his fight with Steve Rogers a run for its money: asking his crush to the homecoming dance.

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[FILM REVIEW] 24 Hour Party People (Michael Winterbottom, 2002)

On June 4, 1976, a television presenter named Tony Wilson watched the Sex Pistols perform at the Manchester Lesser Free Trade Hall. The audience for the pioneering punk band was decidedly small; fewer than fifty people attended. Nonetheless, many of these people would go on to have promising music careers of their own. To harness the energy of this new wave of music sweeping Manchester, Wilson founds a record label he dubs Factory Records, signing a promising collected called Joy Division as their first band.

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[FILM REVIEW] Midsommar (Ari Aster, 2019)

Dani Ardor is a college student in a relationship with one Christian Hughes. He is an emotionally distant man – to the point where one of his friends, Mark, suggests they break up. However, one night, he receives a particularly disturbing call from Dani. Her bipolar sister has just committed a heinous murder-suicide, stealing the lives of their parents before taking her own. The next summer, Dani, while attending a party with Christian, learns that he and his three friends, Mark, Josh, and Pelle, have been invented to attend a midsummer celebration in Hälsingland, Sweden. Pelle hails from the country and the festivities take place once every ninety years at an ancestral commune known as the Hårga. Once Dani learns of their trip, Christian hesitantly invites her to join them.

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[FILM REVIEW] Toy Story 4 (Josh Cooley, 2019)

Nine years ago, one toy belonging to a child named Andy Davis, R.C., had been caught in a fierce rainstorm. Andy’s favorite toy, Woody, led a rescue operation and managed to bring him back into the house. However, in the midst of the operation, Andy’s younger sister, Molly, entered the scene. As toys act insentient around humans, Woody could do nothing to prevent one of his friends, Bo Peep, from being donated along with her sheep. Woody tried to convince her to stay, but Bo reminded him that all toys must leave their owners one day. Realizing Andy still needed him, Woody stayed behind.

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[FILM REVIEW] Toy Story 3 (Lee Unkrich, 2010)

With Andy Davis heading for college, his toys begin to worriedly reflect on their own future. They have not been played with in years, and a majority of them are gone. The army men, declaring their job done, parachute out the window. All hope isn’t lost, for Andy decides to take Woody with him to college and intends to place the rest of his toys in the attic. However, through a series of misunderstandings, Ms. Davis believes the bag containing the toys for a normal trash bag and places it on the curb. Saddened that Andy would throw them away, they climb into a donation box along with Molly’s old Barbie doll en route to Sunnyside Daycare. Knowing Andy has not abandoned them, Woody attempts to convince his fellow toys of the truth, though he will find the task more difficult than he ever could have imagined.

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[FILM REVIEW] Toy Story 2 (John Lasseter, 1999)

Andy Davis is preparing to go to summer camp. He intends to bring his favorite toy – a cowboy figure named Woody. However, while playing with him, he inadvertently tears the figure. Andy’s mother tells her son to leave Woody behind out of fear of damaging him further. Woody is now highly afraid of being thrown out – a fear that has come to pass for one of his peers. Wheezy, a squeeze toy penguin, has not seen the light of day for several months upon breaking his squeaker. Andy’s mother then sets Wheezy up at a yard sale. Determined to rescue his friend, Woody leaps into action.

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